large scale – Top Clusters http://topclusters.org/ Sun, 20 Mar 2022 04:29:16 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://topclusters.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-5-100x100.png large scale – Top Clusters http://topclusters.org/ 32 32 Sustainable brands develop strategies to reduce carbon emissions https://topclusters.org/sustainable-brands-develop-strategies-to-reduce-carbon-emissions/ Fri, 18 Mar 2022 07:38:55 +0000 https://topclusters.org/sustainable-brands-develop-strategies-to-reduce-carbon-emissions/ Bhaiya ek bottle paani dena or “Would you like plain water or bottled water” is something that has been part of our lives for about 20 years. Indeed, when you go to the office these days or especially during the peak of the pandemic, and ask for a glass of water, you are always given […]]]>

Bhaiya ek bottle paani dena or “Would you like plain water or bottled water” is something that has been part of our lives for about 20 years. Indeed, when you go to the office these days or especially during the peak of the pandemic, and ask for a glass of water, you are always given a 200ml bottle of water. I’m not here to make you feel guilty about why we ask for bottled water or why we don’t switch to more environmentally friendly alternatives, like carrying your own bottles or drinking from the tap. In fact, drinking water has never been so convenient in our life as it is today.

Plastic has been a blessing in our lives in many ways, far beyond bottles. Whether it’s air conditioners or your favorite car, much of their components today are made of plastic because they’re said to be tough, economical, and easily replaceable. However, it is important to understand its impact on our daily lives.

Global plastic consumption is soaring

Global plastic consumption has grown from 50 million tons in 1976 to more than 7 times or 367 million tons in 2020. Over the same period, our population has grown from 4 billion to nearly 8 billion today. In India, nearly 1 million bottles are purchased every minute in India and while 90% of these are no doubt recycled, the remaining 10% still escapes the recycling process, which accounts for almost 1 lakh of bottles per minute. If we start stacking these bottles, in just 21 days we will have a mountain of plastic bottles that will be taller than the Statue of Unity (182 meters). In addition to this, we also use “single-use plastic” in the form of polythene bags, cosmetic tubes, toothpaste and toothbrushes.

While the above seems like a problem that might be too big for any authority to handle, the solutions are also up to us. The main fact is that most plastics can be converted to their raw form and reused for other purposes.

Recycled boots put to good use

In the clothing industry, clothes made from recycled plastic bottles are hugely successful in all European countries and we hope that we will soon catch up also in the subcontinent. Similarly, plastics are also used on a large scale in the construction of roads and highways. Then, of course, we use recycled plastics to build school desks and the least form we can use them for is in the form of plant stands and pots.

In addition, plastics have a much greater impact and can play a vital role in the field of carbon emissions and therefore climate change. While India boasts a per capita plastic consumption of just 11kg compared to the global average of 28kg per person, we don’t fare so well on the carbon emissions front. We account for nearly 7% of global emissions and rank third on the global carbon emissions list. To counter this impact of “climate change”, plastics play a vital role, especially in a country like India.

For example, clothing made from recycled PET bottles reduces carbon emissions by more than 30% compared to those that are not. If we actively start pursuing all areas of plastic reuse and recycling as well, we will achieve a phenomenon where the produced plastic stays in the economy and out of the environment. Moreover, if plastics stop ending up in landfills and in the oceans, it not only saves our marine life, but also guarantees to reduce the burden on these landfills and helps us to fight climate change in a big way.

Active measures needed to move plastic into the recycling ecosystem

Plastic, which has become such a big villain in the current scheme of things, is effectively a scapegoat or an escape mechanism for anyone unwilling to tackle the real issues. The problem is that the authorities and the general public do not take any action or active habit to ensure that plastic enters the recycling ecosystem instead of ending up on the sides of roads, gutters, streams, rivers and finally the oceans.

We must also applaud the real heroes who manage to get the plastic collected and handed over to the authorities – the scavengers. We need to create a better environment as a society for them to see the same and actually earn an honest living. So the next time you say, Bhaiya ek bottle paani dena, remember you can make a big difference by making sure you buy a product made from recycled fabrics or components. Many sustainable brands are developing strategies and an entire ecosystem to reduce carbon emissions and minimize the use of plastic.

(Kapil Bhatia is CEO and Founder, UNIREC – makes clothes from recycled PET bottles)

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Posted: Friday, March 18, 2022, 1:08 PM IST

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Creating a Local Strategy for Economic Prosperity and Resilience | News, Sports, Jobs https://topclusters.org/creating-a-local-strategy-for-economic-prosperity-and-resilience-news-sports-jobs/ Sat, 26 Feb 2022 16:46:12 +0000 https://topclusters.org/creating-a-local-strategy-for-economic-prosperity-and-resilience-news-sports-jobs/ The county is in the process of updating its fourth Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy (CEDS), “an economic roadmap to diversify and strengthen regional economies”, for publication later this year. This update occurs every five years, as a result of the Economic Development Administration (EDA) Reauthorization Act of 2004. Maui County has completed three […]]]>

The county is in the process of updating its fourth Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy (CEDS), “an economic roadmap to diversify and strengthen regional economies”, for publication later this year.

This update occurs every five years, as a result of the Economic Development Administration (EDA) Reauthorization Act of 2004. Maui County has completed three CEDS, in 2004, 2010, and 2016.

CEDS aims to create a local economic development strategy and an enabling environment for economic prosperity and resilience.

Hawaii Counties have historically engaged our Economic Development Councils to perform the required analysis and reporting. In our case, the Maui Economic Development Board (MEDB) achieved this goal by working with a network of connected businesses, suppliers and associates in a specific field who are all located in the same geographic area. This is called a “cluster-based process” as required by federal law.

CEDS 2016 was led by a strategic committee that identified key economic hubs in Maui County that are driving the economy:

• Agriculture.

• Construction.

• Creative industries.

• Energy.

• Health and wellbeing.

• Science, technology and innovation.

• Sports and leisures.

• Visitor industry.

Additionally, geographic clusters for Hana, Lana’i and Moloka’i have been identified, recognizing that the economic priorities of these communities are unique.

Having recently familiarized itself with CEDS, the Temporary Investigative Group on Tourism Management and Economic Development has found it to be a useful resource in developing a legislative approach that will best support our county’s economic strategy. The timing couldn’t be more perfect, as the council has diligently focused on managing tourism, while simultaneously working to diversify our economy.

Regions are required to update their CEDS to be eligible for assistance from the EDA under its public works and economic adjustment assistance programs. The EDA provides funds to each state, and the state allocates funds to each county. Additionally, a CEDS is a prerequisite for EDA designation as an Economic Development District.

The regulations governing CEDS – found in Title 13 of the Code of Federal Regulations at Section 303.7 – require the following in the CEDS document:

• Historical Summary: A historical summary of economic conditions in the region.

• SWOT Analysis: An in-depth analysis of regional strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

• Strategic direction/action plan: The strategic direction and action plan should build on the results of the SWOT analysis and incorporate/integrate elements from other regional plans (land use planning and transport, development labor, etc.).

• Evaluation Framework: Performance measures used to assess the organization’s implementation of CEDS and its impact on the regional economy.

In addition, the guidance emphasizes the need to think beyond traditional job creation and embrace capacity building and large-scale wealth creation when developing goals, measurable targets, actions and performance measures.

These requirements also highlight the need to adopt an asset-based approach. Efforts that focus on the strengths of a community, while considering the interdependencies between regional economic prosperity and other topics such as employment-focused workforce development, management and natural resource development and sustainable land use.

I invited the MEDB to join the board members at my Budget, Finance and Economic Development Committee meeting on January 26 and make a presentation on the CEDS during its update. (Meeting link: https://tinyurl.com/CEDSmeeting.) At this meeting, I requested that in addition to the required SWOT analysis, SMART goals also be included to update a more CEDS usable. SMART is an acronym used to guide goal setting (specific. measurable. achievable. relevant. time-bound).

The MEDB will convene various community focus groups over the coming months to gather comprehensive inputs and inform cluster-based strategies. Please contact me via email at Keani.rawlins@mauicounty.us if you would like to get more involved.

* Keani Rawlins-Fernandez is Vice President of the Maui County Council and Chair of the Budget, Finance and Economic Development Committee. It serves as the county council seat for the Moloka’i residential area. “3 Minutes of the Council” is a column to explain the latest news on county legislative matters. Visit mauicounty.us for more information.




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Trend analysis of central sensitization https://topclusters.org/trend-analysis-of-central-sensitization/ Wed, 23 Feb 2022 17:08:53 +0000 https://topclusters.org/?p=882 Zhuo Li,1,2,* Chi Xu,2,* Jun Fu,2 Maimaiti Zulipikaer,2 Tao Deng,2 Jiying Chen2 1School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Correspondence: Jiying Chen, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, No. 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100853, People’s […]]]>

Zhuo Li,1,2,* Chi Xu,2,* Jun Fu,2 Maimaiti Zulipikaer,2 Tao Deng,2 Jiying Chen2

1School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence: Jiying Chen, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, No. 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100853, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 10 66938104, Fax +86 10 68216336, Email [email protected]

Background: Central sensitization refers to a state of hypersensitivity in the central nervous system and is associated with the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Central sensitization plays an essential role in various diseases. Nevertheless, there has been no bibliometric analysis before in this field. The purpose of this study was to provide critical themes and trends in the area of central sensitization, to build a network of knowledge, and to facilitate the future development of relevant basic and clinical research.
Methods: Publications on central sensitization were extracted from the Science Citation Index-Expanded. We used R software to systematically analyze the countries, institutions, authors, journals, references, and keywords of the publications. Besides, conceptual structure, intellectual structure, and social structure were constructed.
Results: A total of 4466 publications were included. Research in the field of central sensitization generally showed a steady upward trend. The three structural networks showed that the United States is the leading country in this field. Arendt-Nielsen L and Woolf CJ were the most productive and influential authors, respectively. “Pain” was the journal with the most studies. Most journals that published and cited articles about central sensitization were academically influential. Cluster analysis revealed that research in central sensitization contains three main conceptual clusters, and the themes of research evolve frequently. Current research focuses on the pathogenesis of central sensitization in neuropathic pain, the role of central sensitization in different diseases, and related clinical double-blind trials.
Conclusion: Central sensitization received widespread attention. The United States led the way in academic activity. In this field, the current situation of cooperation and communication between different countries and institutions is positive. The present research hotspots were the pathogenesis of central sensitization in neuropathic pain, the role of central sensitization in different diseases, and related clinical double-blind trials.

Keywords: central sensitization, bibliometric analysis, pain, co-word, co-citation, collaboration network

Introduction

Pain is one of the most common clinical symptoms, leading to a decrease in the quality of life and an increase in health care expenditures.1,2 In the United States alone, approximately 100 million adults suffer from chronic pain and it costs $600 billion each year.3 Nowadays, more and more researches focus on the central sensitization (CS) of pain. CS, formally proposed by Woolf et al in 1988, refers to a state of hypersensitivity in the nervous system and is associated with the development and maintenance of chronic pain.4 In the state of CS, pain-related signaling pathways are hypersensitive to noxious and non-noxious stimuli. Besides, CS plays a crucial role in the evolution from acute to chronic pain.5 To a certain extent, pain is a measure of self-protection. However, chronic pain in a pathological state can be extremely disturbing to physical and mental health. When CS occurs, the nervous system is “provoked”. It is in a constant state of hyperresponsiveness, which lowers the pain threshold and continues to maintain pain after the external stimulus has disappeared or diminished.

CS can be present in many conditions with chronic pain, including fibromyalgia,6 endometriosis,7 chronic low back pain,8,9 hidradenitis suppurativa,10 osteoarthritis,6,11 rheumatoid arthritis and chronic migraine.12 Besides, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as Sudeck’s atrophy, is also highly associated with CS and is characterized by significant autonomic and inflammatory features.13,14 In addition, in procedures such as hip and knee arthroplasty, spinal fusion, ovariohysterectomy, and oral surgery, CS can aggravate postoperative pain and severely reduce the postoperative quality of life.15–21

In terms of pathogenesis, CS is a broad topic that encompasses distorted sensory processing in the central nerve system (CNS),22 malfunctioning of descending pain-inhibitory mechanisms,23 enhanced activity of pain-facilitatory mechanisms,24 and long-term potentiation of the neural synapses in the anterior cingulate cortex.25 The above-mentioned pathological conditions will gradually lead to CS. This process can start with peripheral sensitization and then progress to advanced CS characterized by allodynia and diffuse hyperalgesia.26 Synaptic plasticity, influenced by environmental and individual genetic factors, is a critical element in CS process. Moreover, neuroplasticity in chronic pain syndromes has been of great interest to clinicians and researchers in recent decades.

Bibliometrics is a cross-cutting discipline that uses mathematical and statistical methods to quantitatively analyze a variety of specific indicators such as authors, citations, and keywords of the literature. With its help, we can also construct a network of knowledge in a particular field. Unlike other methods, bibliometrics can provide more accurate and credible reports through a systematic, reproducible, and modular process of literature analysis. It can simultaneously manage and handle large amounts of literature information, uncover intrinsic connections in the data, reveal the current state and development process of the discipline, and present the current scientific landscape of the research field.27,28

Bibliometric analysis has been applied in cutting-edge medical fields, such as COVID-1929 and single-cell sequencing.30 To the best of our knowledge, this is the first bibliometric study in the field of CS. The purpose of this study was to provide critical themes and trends in the area of CS, to build a network of knowledge, to get an overview of academic collaborations, and to facilitate the future development of relevant basic and clinical research.

Materials and Methods

The data for this study were extracted from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) database of the Clarivate Analytics Web of Science Core Collection. The data search strategy included the topic “central sensitization”, and the time span was set to 1998–2020. A total of 4710 articles were retrieved. Two other authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of the literature. We excluded special types of publications such as book chapters, editorial materials, corrections, and proceedings papers, and obtained a total of 4466 articles for further analysis. We exported 4466 articles in the form of all records and references and saved them as BibTex files. All data were downloaded within one day on September 15, 2021 to avoid deviations caused by database updates.

We summarized and analyzed the main bibliometric indicators of the selected literature, including the number of articles, journals, keywords, citations, author distribution, and collaborations. We used Author Appearances (AA) to represent the total frequency of all authors in all publications. Besides, we calculated the collaboration index (CI), which is another metric used to quantify collaboration between authors and can be calculated as total authors of multi-authored articles/total multi-authored articles. Besides, we used total citations and local citations to assess the impact of the articles. The former counts citations received by a selected article “all over the world”, while the latter counts only citations received from documents included in our collection (4466 articles). Local citations measure the impact of a document in the analyzed collection. What’s more, we assessed the author’s scholarly achievements by H-index, G-index, and M-index. It is well known that H-index is an author’s number of published articles (h) each of which has been cited in other papers at least h times. The m-index is defined as H-index/n, where n is the number of years since the first published paper of the author. Additionally, given a set of articles ranked in decreasing order of the number of citations that they received, the G-index is the unique largest number such that the top g articles received together at least g2 citations. In further, we evaluated the academic impact of the journals based on Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Briefly, journals in a field are ranked according to their impact factors, with the top 25% (including 25%) being classified as Q1, the top 25% to 50% (including 50%) as Q2, the top 50% to 75% (including 75%) as Q3, and those after 75% as Q4. As for keywords, there were two types of keywords: those provided by the authors and those automatically extracted by the system (KeyWord Plus). KeyWords Plus provides additional search terms extracted from the titles of articles cited by authors in their bibliographies and footnotes in the ISI (now Clarivate Analytics) database. It substantially augments title-word and author-keyword indexing.31

Additionally, we constructed three structural networks to enable deeper mining of the literature structure. Nodes in the network represented high-frequency items (eg, articles, journals, or authors), and their sizes indicated the frequency of occurrence. The more frequently an item appears, the larger the size of the corresponding node. Similarly, the lines between nodes represented their connectivity or interactions. The thickness of the line reflected the degree or strength of co-citation or co-occurrence of the nodes.32,33 We applied three metrics to measure the centrality of nodes in the network. All shortest paths of any two nodes in the network were calculated, and if many of them passed through a node, then the Betweenness Centrality of this node was considered high. If the shortest distance from a node to other nodes was small, then we considered the Closeness Centrality of the node to be high. The PageRank score was obtained by link analysis, which was an unsupervised learning method based on Markov chains on graph data.34

The conceptual structure was constructed by co-word analysis based on the co-occurrence frequency of keywords in the whole set. More specifically, it was mapped using the co-occurrence of KeyWords Plus. We set the following parameters: the normalization method was the association, the number of nodes was 50, the repulsion force was 0.1, the minimum number of edges was 2, and we removed isolated nodes. In addition, we constructed the intellectual structure of the CS field by co-citation analysis. Co-citation can be seen as the counterpart of bibliographic coupling. As far as references are concerned, two articles are coupled if at least one common citation source appears in the references of both articles. Co-citation, on the other hand, reflects two cited papers being cited by one paper at the same time. The bibliographic coupling reflects a fixed and long-lasting relationship between the papers, while the co-citation reflects a changing or temporary relationship. We set the number of nodes to 50 and constructed a co-citation network of articles, authors, and journals. Besides, we showed the social structure of the CS by collaboration network analysis. The nodes in the network can represent articles, journals, institutions, or countries, and they were linked by co-authors.

Data processing and analysis were performed by R software (version 4.1.0). We completed the bibliometric analysis and plotted figures using the R package called bibliometrix. For cluster analysis, the Louvain method was chosen as the algorithm.35

Results

General Information and Publication Trends

As shown in Figure 1 and Table 1, 4466 publications on CS have been published in the past 23 years. During this 23-year period, there had been a substantial increase in the number of papers on CS. The overall analysis of the publications showed that they were written by 13,127 authors and the average citations per document were 40.1. These publications had 833 journals and a total of 119,823 references. Besides, the number of KeyWords Plus and author’s keywords were 8643 and 6850, respectively. Interestingly, the average article citations per year fluctuated around four with two peaks: in 2004 and 2019 with 8.2 and 5.8, respectively, indicating that newly published articles also had a high impact.

Figure 1 The number of publications with the theme of CS indexed by SCI-E from 1998 to 2020.

Abbreviations: CS, central sensitization; SCI-E, Science Citation Index-Expanded.

Publication Performances: Countries, Institutions, and Authors

The publication country was selected based on the corresponding author. As shown in Table 2, the most productive country in terms of CS was the United States of America (USA) (n = 1379, 30.9%), followed by China (n = 432, 9.7%) and Germany (n = 262, 5.9%). However, although the United States has the largest number of multiple countries publications (MCPs), it does not account for a high percentage of all publications. The most cited country was also USA (n = 87,030, average article citations (AAC, total citations divided by the number of articles) =63.11), followed by the United Kingdom (n = 11,313, AAC = 45.07) and Germany (n = 10,977, AAC = 41.9). The top three most productive institutions were University of Florida (n = 297), Aalborg University (n = 269) and Vrije Universiteit Brussel (n = 232) (Figure 2A). Six of the top ten most productive institutions were in the USA. The above data showed that the USA was the leader in CS research. In addition, Figure 2B showed the top ten most productive authors, and Figure 2C showed their annual articles published and cited information. Many authors had been deeply involved in the field of CS for more than ten years. From 1998 to 2020, Arendt-Nielsen L had published articles on CS almost every year. Nijs J and Meeus M, on the other hand, had been focusing on CS field research since 2007, while academic publications were more prolific after 2013. We analyzed authors’ academic indices (H-index, G-index, and M-index) based on this study’s article collection. Arendt-Nielsen L from Aalborg University not only had the highest number of publications but also had the highest academic indices (Supplementary Table 1).

Table 1 Main Information About Bibliometric Analysis

Table 2 Top 20 Productive Countries and Citations per Country

Figure 2 Top ten most productive institutions and authors. (A) Top ten most productive institutions; (B) Top ten most productive authors; (C) Top-Authors’ Production Over Time. The color of the dots represent the number of articles, and the size of the dots represent the TC per year.

Abbreviation: TC, total citations.

Highly Contributive Journals and Articles

The most productive source for article publication was “Pain” with 380 articles published during 1998–2020, followed by “Journal of Pain” (n = 118) and “European Journal of Pain” (n = 116) (Table 3). Most of the journals were in the field of pain research or neuroscience journals. Besides, the articles from “Pain” were the most cited, with 24,854 total citations. More importantly, the most cited journals in the references of 4466 included publications were also “Pain” with 29,410 citations. Most local cited articles referred to highly cited articles in the current data set, and can be considered as articles with significant academic influence in this field. The first ranked article was “Woolf et al, 2011”26 with 748 local citations and 2014 global citations, followed by “Latremoliere et al, 2009”36 with 664 local citations and 1731 global citations (Supplementary Table 2). Both review articles were published on “Pain”.

Table 3 Top 20 Journals Related to Central Sensitization

Conceptual Structure

Based on the co-occurrence analysis of 8643 KeyWords Plus, we revealed that they can be classified into three different clusters (Figure 3). We ranked them in each cluster based on their network centrality. In cluster 1, “central sensitization” (Betweenness Centrality:121.20) had the highest centrality, followed by “pain” and “hyperalgesia”. Cluster 2 contained only two elements, “sensitization” and “central”. However, cluster 3 revealed another topic closely linked to CS: “neuropathic pain” (Betweenness Centrality:21.58). “Spinal-cord”, “neurons”, and “activation” also belonged to the same cluster (Supplementary Table 3). We divided the 23-year time span of articles into three periods: 1998–2005; 2006–2012; and 2013–2020. As shown in Figure 4, in the first period of 1998–2005, we identified 12 thematic fields, of which “substance-p” and “central sensitization” were the most studied. In the second phase, the field of “neuropathic pain” emerged, which evolved from the previous nine thematic areas. “Temporal summation”, which evolved from three thematic areas, was also an important emerging concept during this period. Interestingly, in the recent period, many of the previous fields evolved into the final five key areas: “central sensitization”, “neuropathic pain”, “ double-blind”, “sensitization”, “low-back-pain”, and “brain”. These were the hot research topics and future directions in the field of CS.

Figure 3 Network visualization of KeyWords Plus (KWP) co-occurrence. The thickness of the connecting line between 2 keywords represents the strength of co-occurrence. The size of the KWP represents the index of their centrality.

Figure 4 Thematic evolution of KeyWords Plus in field of research on central sensitization 1998–2020. Three time slices: 1998–2005, 2006–2012, and 2013–2020.

Intellectual Structure

The most influential authors, articles, and journals were determined based on co-citation networks and cluster analysis. In articles and authors clustering, we obtained four main clusters, while in journals we obtained two (Figure 5). Figure 5A showed that “Woolf CJ”, “Arendt-Nielsen L”, “Burstein R” and “Treede RD” occupied the center of each of the four author clusters. The top five co-cited authors with the highest Betweenness Centrality were “Woolf CJ” (118.06) in cluster 1, and “Treede RD” (50.30), “Koltzenburg M” (34.07), “Melzack R” (31.42), and “Baron R” (26.11) in cluster 4 (Supplementary Table 4). “Price DD” (22.72) and “Burstein R” (13.78) were the most centralized in clusters 2 and 3, respectively. Figure 5B indicated that “Woolf CJ, 2011” and “Latremoliere A” were centered in the largest cluster of articles. In fact, six of the top 10 co-cited articles with the highest centrality were written by Woolf CJ, and these articles were in the center of cluster 1, cluster 2, and cluster 4. As for the co-cited journals, the “Journal of Neuroscience” and the “Pain” are the most centralized in clusters 1 and 2, respectively (Figure 5C). However, the “Pain” was the most centralized by a large margin. Most of the journals in cluster 1 were neuroscience journals, while the journals in cluster 2 seemed to be more focused on pain research. The above results indicated that “Woolf CJ” and the “Pain” were the most influential author and journal in the co-citation network, respectively.

Figure 5 Co-citation network analysis with the identification of only 2 co-citation clusters for (A) authors, (B) articles, and (C) journals.

Social Structure

Ten different clusters of authors were formed in the social structure of 4466 articles related to CS (Figure 6A). The authors with high centrality in the co-collaboration network were “Arendt-Nielsen L” in Cluster 1, “Nijs J” in Cluster 2, “Wang Y” in Cluster 3, and “Ji RR” in Cluster 4. Besides, the institutions reaching the highest centrality were “Aalborg University”, “Vrije Universiteit Brussel”, “Harvard University”, and “The University of Toronto” (Figure 6B). The most prominent countries with high centrality were the USA (619.21) in cluster 1, United Kingdom (54.87) in cluster 2, Spain (21.87) in cluster 3 (Figure 6C). China was in the same cluster as the US and also had a high degree of centrality (48.62). Simultaneously, we constructed an inter-country collaboration map based on the number of MCPs. In brief, it was created by mapping MCPs’ international partnerships to a global map to more visually show the state of global collaboration. The thicker the red line, the more frequent the collaboration. As shown in Figure 7, international cooperation in the field of CS was quite frequent. Specifically, the top five collaborations among countries, ranked by number of MCPs, were USA-China:100; USA-United Kingdom:68; USA-Germany:59; USA-Canada:53; USA-Denmark:47. The social structure suggested a good level of international collaboration in the field of CS, with the USA playing an influential role in the cooperation network.

Figure 6 Collaborations network among (A) authors, (B) institutions, and (C) countries.

Figure 7 Worldwide collaborations among countries in the field of central sensitization. The thicker the red line, the more frequent the collaboration.

Discussion

We applied a bibliometric analysis to elucidate the global scientific activity around the topic of CS to help scholars deepen their understanding of the scientific accumulation and potential future trends in CS research. We analyzed the most productive countries, institutions and authors, and the most contributive journals and articles in CS research. Besides, we constructed conceptual structure, knowledge structure, and social structure through network analysis and cluster analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first bibliometric study in the field of CS.

It is well known that in recent years there had been a significant increase in the number of publications in the field of pain, such as pain after spinal cord injury,37 chronic postsurgical pain,38 etc. As shown in Figure 1, the number of CS-related articles was on a very steady upward trend, which indicated a great potential for future development. The USA was the most productive and most cited country. Besides, six of the top ten most productive institutions were in the USA. The above data showed that the USA is the leader in CS research. Similarly, bibliometric analyses in other specific pain areas had shown the USA was the leader in pain research, such as pain in the elderly,39 back pain,40 acupuncture for low back pain,41 and neuropathic pain.42 Many of the most productive authors had been deeply involved in this field for more than ten years, reflecting the progressive development of their research. In recent years, Arendt-Nielsen L, as the most productive author, had contributed to elucidating the role of CS in tension-type headache, chronic neck and shoulder pain, pelvic pain, and osteoarthritis pain.43–47 Regarding the number of publications and the citations, “Pain” was the most influential journal. Besides, 7 of the top 20 most productive journals belonged to JCR Q1, which showed the importance of CS field research.

Most local cited articles can provide us with more helpful information. Two reviews written by Woolf and Latremoliere described in detail the concept and mechanisms of CS. They elaborated on its relationship to central neuroplasticity and implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pain.26,36 Ji et al analyzed the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of CS and learning memory.48 Notably, they suggested that although synaptic plasticity changes differ between the two, they share striking similarities. Using patch-clamp recordings in lamina II neurons of isolated spinal cord slices, pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) had been shown to induce CS through distinct and overlapping synaptic mechanisms in superficial dorsal horn neurons.49 In addition, these cytokines may further induce long-term synaptic plasticity through cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated downstream responses. The study by Arendt-Nielsen et al revealed the role of CS in painful knee osteoarthritis and received 518 global citations and 167 local citations.50

In the conceptual structure we constructed, the essential clusters were cluster 1: “Central Sensitization” and cluster 2: “Neuropathic Pain”. The concepts in both clusters have been very active over the past 20 years: cluster 1 – which includes the terms pain, mechanism, hyperalgesia, modulation, and temporal summation – is the most prominent and demonstrates the core concepts of the CS field. As well, another primary cluster “Neuropathic Pain” – which includes the terms spinal cord, neurons, activation, substance-p, long-term potentiation, and peripheral nerve injury – mainly explores the neuropathological alterations of CS.26,51–53 We analyzed the thematic evolution of different time slices, which can highlight the complexity of research in the CS field. Interestingly, in the recent period, many of the previous fields evolved into the final five key fields: “central sensitization”, “neuropathic pain”, “double-blind”, “sensitization”, “low-back-pain”, and “brain “. Several bibliometric analyses showed similar interesting results. “Double blind” was also one of the most commonly used keywords in neuropathic pain research.42 Besides, “central sensitization” was the research development trends and focus in the pain field after spinal cord injury.37 Nowadays, there are a growing number of double-blind studies advancing the clinical application of the concept of CS, deepening the understanding of a variety of diseases such as osteoarthritis and migraine.54–57 CS-related changes in functional brain activity can be observed in rats with endometriosis-related pain: enhanced ReHo signaling in the cingulate cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus, which may be due to neuronal apoptosis or hyperactivity.58 In addition, since the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential driver of neuroplasticity, targeting BDNF may be a potential therapeutic target for improving CS (blockade of the adenosine A2A receptor, antagonizing NMDA receptors, or blocking the proteinase-activated receptors 2-NK-κβ signaling pathway).59 The importance of CS in chronic low back pain has been demonstrated. Similarly, in acute lower back pain CS may co-exist with other psychological factors (high sensitivity and negative psychological state) and contribute to the persistence of pain.60

Intellectual structure analysis revealed the current knowledge base of CS research, and it indicated that “Woolf CJ” and the “Pain” were the most influential author and journal in the co-citation network, respectively. Although “Woolf CJ” is not on the list of the most productive authors, his papers have a considerable impact on the CS field. The most contributive article is “Woolf et al, 2011”8 with 748 local citations and 2011 global citations, which can also confirm the significance of his publications. He revealed that IL1β-mediated induction of Cox-2 in the central nervous system promoted hypersensitivity of inflammatory pain.61 Besides, he confirmed that bradykinin activated multiple kinases in dorsal horn neurons resulting in hyperalgesia.62 On a more fundamental level, the papers located at the center of each cluster in Figure 5B can represent recognized carriers of knowledge in the CS field. At the same time, they can also contribute to the emergence of new research.

We constructed social structures at three levels: authors, research institutions, and countries. What is exciting is that there is a good co-collaboration network in the CS field, especially between countries, which is not available in some other studies.32 But we should also note the imbalance between the different geographic regions: North America, Europe, East Asia, and Oceania are the regions where collaboration is much more frequent. The lack of deeper international cooperation may be a real obstacle to more remarkable progress in CS research in the future. With the help of academic journals and professional associations, it is proposed that scholars from different research areas and professional backgrounds should work collaboratively to optimize this situation further.63

The present study also has some limitations that need to be solved. First, we only included articles from the Web of Science Core Collection; therefore, this study cannot be an exhaustive review of the entire literature in the CS field. Second, the search results of this study are not representative of the real-time situation due to the continuous updating of the relevant literature. Third, although the publications included in this study were manually screened, the quality of the collected literature was uneven, which may reduce the credibility of the results. It is undoubtedly important to select as much relevant publications as possible in order to obtain an overall picture of research in a given field. Therefore, stringent inclusion criteria for the publications may be a double-edged sword. In future studies we may be able to assess or avoid the uneven quality of the literature by setting different inclusion criteria, classification according to different definitions of CS, or based on impact factor or number of citations, etc. Fourth, CS can only be assessed in animals and in humans we can only assess a proxy, which may introduce uncertainty into the results. In future research, we may be able to precisely define CS in humans or animals separately and analyze it separately. Finally, we cannot assess the incidence of self-citation when constructing the knowledge structure.

Our study was based on the R package “bibliometrix”, and three structural networks were constructed. Overall, we established a model that can be used to keep track on the area in the future with the option to see changes in the landscape. Through periodic analysis, we can obtain historical trajectories and real-time dynamics of CS research. We hope this is an innovative exploration in this field.

Conclusion

Studying the mechanism of CS and its role in disease diagnosis and treatment has excellent research value and broad clinical application prospects. Using the R package named bibliometrix for bibliometric analysis and visualization, research in CS generally showed a steady upward trend. The three structural networks showed that the USA is the leading country in this research. Arendt-Nielsen L and Woolf CJ were the most productive and influential authors, respectively. The current situation of cooperation and communication between different countries and institutions is positive. Most journals that publish and cite articles about CS were academically influential, indicating that CS had received widespread attention. Cluster analysis revealed that research in the field of CS contained three main conceptual clusters, and the themes of research evolved frequently. The current research focused on the pathogenesis of CS in neuropathic pain, the role of CS in different diseases, and related clinical double-blind trials.

Abbreviations

CS, central sensitization; CNS, central nerve system; SCI-EXPANDED, Science Citation Index Expanded; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; KWP, KeyWords plus; MCP, multiple countries publications.

Data Sharing Statement

The raw data can be directly obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database.

Ethics Approval and Informed Consent

This study did not include any patient information. Thus, the requirement for ethics approval was waived.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2020YFC2004900).

Disclosure

Zhuo Li and Chi Xu are the co-first authors. The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.

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First Bank Congratulates Junior Achievement Nigeria on Nobel Peace Prize Nomination https://topclusters.org/first-bank-congratulates-junior-achievement-nigeria-on-nobel-peace-prize-nomination/ Fri, 11 Feb 2022 06:59:39 +0000 https://topclusters.org/first-bank-congratulates-junior-achievement-nigeria-on-nobel-peace-prize-nomination/ Applications are open this week for Chapter54, a new acceleration program for European tech scale-ups looking to expand into African markets. Implemented by Partech Shaker, the innovation programs arm of Partech, with funding from German development bank KfW, the program will provide financial and operational assistance to selected companies across Europe to strengthen their footprint […]]]>

Applications are open this week for Chapter54, a new acceleration program for European tech scale-ups looking to expand into African markets. Implemented by Partech Shaker, the innovation programs arm of Partech, with funding from German development bank KfW, the program will provide financial and operational assistance to selected companies across Europe to strengthen their footprint in Africa.

Europe is the leading investor in Africa, with foreign direct investment reaching $275 billion. Enabling new investment and business linkages, especially in the technology sector, opens up significant and mutually beneficial market opportunities. Chapter54 companies will join a dynamic and growing tech scene. Investment in African tech companies has seen a significant uptick, with fintech alone accounting for more than 60% of funding in 2021, according to market research. In the first nine months of 2021 alone, fintechs secured investments totaling $1.5 billion, more than they received in the previous decade, which saw inflows of $1 billion. .

This rising investment is part of a larger trend of growing deals, which are increasing in both number and ticket size. Africa has seen the emergence of seven tech unicorns, with five fintechs – Fawry, OPay, Wave, Flutterwave and Interswitch – joined by e-commerce platform Jumia and engineering talent platform Andela, both also major players on the continent in their respective fields.

Large-scale investment and industry growth creates a positive feedback loop, attracting more venture capital, developing technology pathways for commerce, and opening the market for other technology innovations to a growing consumer base. informed and financially included.

To enable new entrants to take advantage of these opportunities, Chapter54 has selected a network of business support providers with strong local expertise and knowledge. Asoko Insight, Africa’s leading provider of business data, analytics and engagement, is proud to be the program’s data partner, offering bespoke market research including comprehensive supply chain mapping. sourcing in specific markets and business sectors, to support market entry.

Rob Withagen, co-founder and CEO of Asoko, said of the partnership: “Over the past eight years, Asoko has built a solid reputation as a leading provider of business data and market analysis, serving a clientele of multilateral, multinational and international investors. We are pleased to extend our services to European tech scale-ups entering African markets through our participation in Chapter54.

To enter the African market, you must adapt the way you hire, pay, sell, embark. We’ve curated an extensive network of mentors and speakers, as well as soft landing solutions to do it the right way. Asoko will help the next generation of African tech leaders succeed. Together with Asoko and the other partners (data provider Africa Panel, legal platform Afriwise, digital recruitment platform Talent2Africa, freelance marketplace Gebeya and workflow automation platform FieldPro), we have built the perfect tools that a scale-up may need to start its activity in Africa.commented Vincent Previ, Managing Director of Chapter54.

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The changing face of Mumbai’s chawls https://topclusters.org/the-changing-face-of-mumbais-chawls/ Fri, 21 Jan 2022 12:11:44 +0000 https://topclusters.org/the-changing-face-of-mumbais-chawls/ Eighty-seven-year-old freelance writer Pandharinath Sawant came to live with his uncle at Digvijay Mills Patra Chawl in Lalbaug when he was about eight years old. Although he was new to the chawl – a cluster of 10×10 houses built by mill owners for their workers – he did not feel left out or alone. An […]]]>

Eighty-seven-year-old freelance writer Pandharinath Sawant came to live with his uncle at Digvijay Mills Patra Chawl in Lalbaug when he was about eight years old. Although he was new to the chawl – a cluster of 10×10 houses built by mill owners for their workers – he did not feel left out or alone. An hour after his father dropped him off at his uncle’s “to study and become Saheb”, the young Sawant had made his first friend.

Sawant’s chawl is surrounded by other chawls, each with a distinct character. Each of these chawls is over 100 years old. Their faded walls, their peeling paintwork, their rickety steps, a strange window hanging on broken hinges, all speak volumes about a present caught in a time warp of development. However, Sawant’s chawl is different. It’s the cleanest of all the low-roofed houses, with a uniformity of tiled walls (inside and out). Outside, the narrow tiled path winding through the chawl, the tulsi plants in every type of pot imaginable, the motorbikes parked in front of the houses, are all designed to entice the visitor to exercise. Although this chawl is also over 100 years old, the uniformity of its exterior belies its age.

The inhabitants of the chawl proudly say that if one has lived in a chawl, one will feel lonely everywhere else. The chawls are spread out in long, even rows, with chambers so small that two inhabitants can barely stand in them at a time. Half the family sleeps on the veranda outside or in other makeshift rooms in tiny lofts. Some even sleep on the paved paths that run along the chawls.

There is a communal tap and communal toilet located at the end of the chawl. While the majority of chawls were originally single-storey, they grew vertically as the city’s population grew. The doors of the chawls are never closed. Privacy is an unheard of thing here – closed doors during the day would attract a fair amount of snickering and gossip. Each inhabitant of the chawl is aware of what is happening in the house of all his neighbors. The details of every conversation, argument, laugh or tear are whispered into willing ears, liberally sprinkled with distortion.

Modernity entered chawls a few decades ago when women swapped their sarees for the more comfortable “babydoll” or “gown”. Dressed in these, they go to the vegetable markets, the kirana shops, the fish market – just about anywhere. There was a time when every family had clothes of a similar print – the father’s underwear, the mother’s blouse, the shirts, dresses and even the parrkar-blouse (long skirt and blouse) of the young girls.

Life in a chawl A woman hangs clothes to dry on a communal balcony

The textile mills of formerly Bombay are at the origin of the birth of the chawls in the city. These mills stretched from Girangaon in the Lalbaug-Parel area in central Mumbai to Girgaum in south Mumbai, and spanned huge tracts of land. The employment opportunities offered by these factories led to large-scale migration from rural Maharashtra to Bombay, which was then much more compact than what Mumbai is today. The mill owners had probably believed that if their workers had a place to stay, it would improve productivity and keep the mills going.

While the white-collar factory workers (managerial personnel) stayed in the Girgaum chawls, the blue-collar workers stayed in the Girangaon chawls. While managerial culture seeped into the Girgaum, it was trade unionism, workers’ rights and the struggle for survival that dominated conversations in the Girangaon chawls.

Mill sirens signaling the start and end of shifts (all mills worked in three shifts) could be heard across Bombay, which stretched no further than Zion, unlike Mumbai today, which extends beyond Virar in the north and Mulund in the east. Dressed in their white kurtas, pajamas and Gandhi topis, factory workers were commonplace throughout the city. No more.

After the great factory workers’ strike of 1982, called by trade unionist Dr Datta Samant, the factory economy collapsed. Today, silent chimneys and dilapidated closed mills dot both Girangaon and Girgaum. After the sirens died down, the chawls had a burgeoning population of unemployed youths, who became easy prey for underworld gangs led by Arun Gawli and the late Rama Naik. Faced with loss of income, thousands of families faced a bleak future. Their life of misery drove many young people into crime and fights became a daily occurrence at the chawls.

Recounting the incidents of the gang wars that followed in the 1980s, a resident of Sitabai Chawl in Lalbaug said: “We stood on our balconies and saw gangsters shooting at each other. We were scared and no one could control these capricious youngsters. Those were terrible days. Even now, there are young people who accept freelance missions from developers to evict the inhabitants of chawl.

As the factory workers’ strike continued, women in the chawls began pawning their meager jewelry to make ends meet. This saw the birth of many small-scale jewelry stores that operated clandestinely as pawnbrokers. Later they started lending money at high interest rates. A percentage of their income was given to the gangs as protection money.

While Dagdi Chawl in Byculla became a gated community for those who owed allegiance to the Gawli gang, 144 Tenements (a group of chawls) barely a kilometer away, became the headquarters and residence of the Rama Naik gang.

A skyscraper seen against the backdrop of a chawl.

Be it the southern or central Mumbai chawls, the famous kinship is on display every day, in every way. They share their homes, their food, their worries, their tears, their happiness and their festivities. Everyone opens their hearts, purses, and homes for engagements, weddings, children’s birthdays, funeral rituals, and more. During the Covid-19 lockdown, when skyscraper dwellers were sequestered in their homes, the doors were left open in the chawls. “We were scared. We followed all the Covid protocols, but we helped each other. When someone got sick, the neighbors went with them to the hospital and supported them with money, help and support. workforce,” Sawant said.

According to Sawant, pandemic or not, a chawl is an extended and cohesive family unit. Meenakshi Supe, a resident of a Parel chawl, spoke of the common practice of “katori sharing”. “When we don’t have a particular item, we just take a katori and go to the neighbor and borrow it. We return it after we buy it. During Covid we all had less food to eat but no one was hungry. We shared everything we had,” Supe said.

Naresh Shinde was born and raised in a chawl in Parel. He married a girl from a neighboring chawl. While he worked with the media, his wife Supriya worked for a marketing company. Their two children, aged 5 and 10, spend the day with a neighbor while the parents are at work. “We leave the children with our neighbour, which is about 2 km away. They offered to take care of the children at no cost. It is as if our children were with their grandparents. That is the link here,” Supriya said.

As the chawls grew, a new culture and social life developed around them. Thus, theater and the culture of plays emerged in the chawls of Girangaon and Girgaum. The playwrights were born in the chawls of Girgaum and their plays about the problems faced by factory workers found resonance with those who lived in the chawls of Girangaon. Many theatres, including Bharat Mata and Hind Mata, where plays were performed, became popular with factory workers. the Tamasha the culture also became popular during this time. Today, chawls have become a victim of redevelopment. The exodus of the Marathi population from the heart of Mumbai – from its chawls to the city’s outlying northern suburbs – began a few years ago. As the Marathi population began to relocate, so did their culture. The transition from Bombay to Mumbai marked the chawls. As Bombay, the chawls have witnessed the Quit India movement, the independence movement, women’s and workers’ rights movements, and much more. The renaming has prompted neoliberal redevelopment – high-rise corporations on land where chawls and mills once stood.

Today, girls living in chawls don’t want to marry boys from chawls, while girls who grew up outside don’t want to marry and live in chawls. Joint families have become nuclear; educated and hard-working children of chawl residents prefer to live in closed societies. Since affordability is a major issue given the exorbitant real estate prices in Mumbai, a majority of young people from the chawls have moved to remote suburbs, while the elderly have returned to their villages, breaking the age-old system. of the common family.

Today, the real estate boom has transformed the landscape of Lalbaug, Parel and Girgaum, and the life of the inhabitants of chawl. After the Haji Kasam chawl, the first to be demolished and replaced by a chic 23-storey skyscraper, there has been no turning back. About 1000 families have been rehabilitated from Haji Kasam chawl to this skyscraper, changing their life and way of life forever.

Redevelopment is a strange feeling for those who expect it. They are excited about the idea of ​​moving into new homes where the bedrooms won’t turn into living rooms and kitchens. A large number of kholis (rooms) have been transformed into independent apartments; others are on the way. Redevelopment also means many rungs in the economic and social ladder and in houses whose doors remain closed. In their new homes, they don’t have access to their neighbour’s house, but closed doors mean safety and security.

Towers built to replace chawls feature state-of-the-art elevators, wide porches, and hard-to-pronounce names. From being slumdogs, Mumbai chawls become millionaires, with no pit stops in between.

(This appeared in the print edition as “Slumdogs to Millionaires”)

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Maine utility admits solar interconnect faults, hires consultants – pv magazine USA https://topclusters.org/maine-utility-admits-solar-interconnect-faults-hires-consultants-pv-magazine-usa/ Fri, 14 Jan 2022 15:40:14 +0000 https://topclusters.org/maine-utility-admits-solar-interconnect-faults-hires-consultants-pv-magazine-usa/ The Central Maine Power Company admitted its solar power interconnection processes were flawed in 2020-21 and proposed a settlement that includes hiring grid analysts, funding a task force between the industry and utility and a considerable tightening of upgrade cost estimates. January 14, 2022 John Fitzgerald Weaver In file number 2021-0035 with the Maine Public […]]]>

The Central Maine Power Company admitted its solar power interconnection processes were flawed in 2020-21 and proposed a settlement that includes hiring grid analysts, funding a task force between the industry and utility and a considerable tightening of upgrade cost estimates.

In file number 2021-0035 with the Maine Public Utilities Commission, electric utility Central Maine Power Company (CMP) admitted wrongdoing and proposed a settlement to bolster their solar integration work after last year interconnection fee debacle.

To achieve the utility’s goal of improving interconnect processing, $550,000 will be spent to hire up to six new contractors to support the interconnect process. These individuals will focus on the cluster study process at the transmission level for large-scale projects. An additional $150,000 will fund an ongoing industry and utility task force to identify and resolve network connection issues.

The $700,000 will come from shareholders’ money and cannot be covered by taxpayers.

The settlement also notes that CMP was at fault and should have identified its “surge” issues much earlier in the project interconnection process. The utility said it would modify scanning techniques to better estimate upgrade needs.

Among these modifications of the interconnection technique is a tariff refinement. The utility’s CMP said it will “commit to providing more detailed cost estimates and construction schedules than the (-50%/+200%) cost estimates” they had submitted.

Additionally, the utility released a list of projects — shown below — that are currently undergoing long-term cluster studies, slowing their progress toward construction. The CMP indicates that it will endeavor to respect the deadlines currently defined in order not to slow down these projects further.

This regulation comes in response to massive interconnection fees which were sent to the solar developers after they had already received the interconnection costs and processes.

According to the Maine Renewable Energy Association, some examples of the upgrade changes received by solar developers include:

  • Developer A – originally received a finalized interconnect agreement, with an expected upgrade fee of $100,000. When the document was returned to the utility for final signing, instead of receiving the countersigned original agreement, a new upgrade fee of $1,420,000 was paid, plus additional costs to be determined;
  • Developer B – With five projects fully constructed and having an interconnection agreement fully executed, the developer received a notice that their projects were being upgraded, along with additional fees and a schedule for longer treatment.
  • Developer C – A project with a fully executed interconnection agreement was reassessed for over $12 million in upgrade fees for a project under 2 MW.

After some public pressure, including Governor Janet Mills calling for an investigation, company officials were able to uncover the mistakes of their ways. The utility responded with a letter stating that initial upgrade estimates, which were in the range of $10–15 million per substation, reflected the cost of a complete rebuild. Revised estimates provided a range of $175,000 to $375,000 for required upgrades.

This content is copyrighted and may not be reused. If you wish to cooperate with us and wish to reuse some of our content, please contact: editors@pv-magazine.com.

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Amazon (AMZN) Expands AWS Portfolio with New EC2 Instances https://topclusters.org/amazon-amzn-expands-aws-portfolio-with-new-ec2-instances/ Tue, 11 Jan 2022 20:18:00 +0000 https://topclusters.org/amazon-amzn-expands-aws-portfolio-with-new-ec2-instances/ AmazonAMZN’s cloud division, Amazon Web Services (“AWS”), has made its new specially designed Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances – Hpc6a – generally available in an effort to bolster its compute offerings. Notably, the new instances, backed by 3rd Generation AMD EPYC processors, are designed to run large-scale High Performance Computing (HPC) workloads in […]]]>

AmazonAMZN’s cloud division, Amazon Web Services (“AWS”), has made its new specially designed Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances – Hpc6a – generally available in an effort to bolster its compute offerings.

Notably, the new instances, backed by 3rd Generation AMD EPYC processors, are designed to run large-scale High Performance Computing (HPC) workloads in the cloud while delivering pricing performance up to 65% better.

Hpc6a instances are enabled with Elastic Fabric Adapter (EFA), which helps customers increase operational efficiency by providing low latency, low jitter, and up to 100 Gbps of EFA network bandwidth.

These instances provide a cost-effective way to scale HPC clusters on AWS to run their most compute-intensive workloads, including weather forecasting, molecular dynamics, computational chemistry, financial risk modeling, computational fluid dynamics. and computer aided engineering.

Amazon.com, Inc. pricing and consensus

Amazon.com, Inc. price-consensus-chart | Amazon.com, Inc. Quote

Clientele to expand

We believe this latest initiative will help AWS gain traction among customers in the data-driven world, where demand for HPC is rapidly increasing.

Notably, customers like Maxar Technologies, DTN, and TotalCAE have already expressed interest in Amazon EC2 Hpc6a instances.

We believe growing customer dynamics will continue to drive AWS revenue. In addition, building customer base will continue to help its dominance and competitive advantage over its strong peers like Microsoft MSFT and Alphabetis GOOGL Google.

In addition to customer interests for the new service, AWS was chosen by Rivien RIVN as the preferred cloud provider.

With the goal of improving the efficiency and performance of electric vehicles and accelerating the transition of consumers and businesses to these vehicles, Rivian leverages the analytics, compute, container and machine learning capabilities of AWS.

Additionally, Aurora recently selected AWS as its preferred cloud provider for machine learning training and cloud-based simulation workloads.

Again, the Nasdaq signed a multi-year agreement with AWS to accelerate the development of advanced cloud infrastructure for global financial markets. It is preparing to move its North American markets to AWS.

Expansion of the portfolio

The latest move bodes well for AWS’s growing efforts to expand its portfolio of products and services.

In addition to Amazon EC2 Hpc6a instances, the company recently unveiled a visual development environment – AWS Amplify Studio – that enables web application user interface creation with minimal coding.

The company recently announced a managed wide area network (WAN) service, namely AWS Cloud WAN. The new service facilitates the seamless development, management, operation and monitoring of a global network using a central dashboard.

Additionally, the company introduced AWS Private 5G, enabling businesses to seamlessly deploy and scale their 5G mobile network.

AWS also announced a managed service called AWS IoT FleetWise, which can cost-effectively collect and transfer data from millions of vehicles to the cloud in real time.

He announced AWS IoT TwinMaker, which enables the rapid creation of digital twins of devices, equipment and processes.

The company unveiled three Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances, namely C7g, Trn1, and Im4gn / Is4gen / I4i.

Additionally, AWS has made Amazon EC2 DL1 instances generally available. DL1 instances, supported by Gaudi accelerators from Habana Labs, help in training ML models.

To conclude

We believe that all efforts, along with the expansion of data center and cloud region, will continue to help Amazon gain customer base in the booming cloud market.

However, Amazon, which currently holds a Zacks Rank # 5 (Strong Sell), is currently facing stiff competition from Microsoft and Alphabet.

You can see The full list of Zacks # 1 Rank (Strong Buy) stocks today here.

Notably, Microsoft Azure has become the main engine of growth for Microsoft. The company is currently focusing on robust adoption of Azure cloud offerings. Notably, Azure’s growing number of availability zones and regions around the world, along with the strength of its consumption-based business, are expected to continue to drive Microsoft’s cloud momentum in the near term.

Likewise, Google Cloud contributes to substantial growth in Alphabet’s total revenue. The expansion of data centers, availability zones and cloud regions should continue to strengthen Alphabet’s cloud position.

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The views and opinions expressed herein are the views and opinions of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of Nasdaq, Inc.

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Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs Market 2021 by Types, Applications, and Major Key Players – GSK, Shanghai Soho-Yiming Pharmaceuticals, Center Laboratories Inc, Aurobindo, Par Pharmaceutical – Industrial IT https://topclusters.org/cluster-headache-syndrome-drugs-market-2021-by-types-applications-and-major-key-players-gsk-shanghai-soho-yiming-pharmaceuticals-center-laboratories-inc-aurobindo-par-pharmaceutical-industri/ Sat, 01 Jan 2022 17:40:01 +0000 https://topclusters.org/cluster-headache-syndrome-drugs-market-2021-by-types-applications-and-major-key-players-gsk-shanghai-soho-yiming-pharmaceuticals-center-laboratories-inc-aurobindo-par-pharmaceutical-industri/ The Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs Market report is the foremost research for those looking for comprehensive information on the Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs Markets. The report covers all the information on the global and regional markets including past and future trends for market demand, size, trade, supply, competitors and prices as well as information of […]]]>


The Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs Market report is the foremost research for those looking for comprehensive information on the Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs Markets. The report covers all the information on the global and regional markets including past and future trends for market demand, size, trade, supply, competitors and prices as well as information of global major vendors. . The report also provides a comprehensive overview of the cluster headache syndrome drugs markets; including top players or vendors, app, type, sharing, and the latest market trends.

In-depth market analysis is combined with precise forecasts and projections in this Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs Market report resulting in comprehensive research solutions that provide absolute clarity to the market report. industry for strategic decision making. Raw market data is collected and analyzed on a large scale. Data is also collected from a number of publications in our archives, as well as a number of well-known paid databases. The data in this Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs market report has been gathered from raw material vendors, dealers, and customers to get a comprehensive understanding of the industry; therefore, this report is extremely helpful to the buyer.

Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs Market: Competition Landscape

The Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs Market report includes information on product launches, sustainability, and outlook for key vendors, including: (GSK, Shanghai Soho-Yiming Pharmaceuticals, Center Laboratories Inc, Aurobindo, Par Pharmaceutical, Fresenius Kabi, Sinopharm A-Think Pharmaceuticals, Sagent Pharmaceuticals, Eli Lilly and Company, Novartis AG, AstraZeneca, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Chengdu Tiantaishan Pharmaceutical, Sihuan Pharmaceutical Holdings Group, Yibin Pharmaceutical, Wockhardt, Pfizer, TrioxBio Inc, Sun Pharmaceutical)

Click on the link for a free copy of the report @ https://crediblemarkets.com/sample-request/cluster-headache-syndrome-drug-market-544093?utm_source=Komal&utm_medium=SatPR

Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs Market: Segmentation

The Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs market is split by Type and by Application for the period 2021-2028, the growth among the segments provides accurate tips and sales forecast by type and by application in terms of volume and valuable. This analysis can help you grow your business by targeting qualified niche markets.

By types:

Triptans
Octreotide
Opioids
Others

By applications:

Abortive
Of transition
Preventive

Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs Market: Regional Analysis

All the regional segmentation has been studied on the basis of recent and future trends, and the market is forecast throughout the forecast period. Countries Covered in Regional Analysis of Global Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs Market Report are United States, Canada and Mexico in North America, Germany, France, UK United, in Russia, in Italy, in Spain, in Turkey, in the Netherlands, in Switzerland, in Belgium and in the rest of Europe in Europe, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, China, Japan, India , South Korea, Rest of Asia-Pacific (APAC) Asia-Pacific (APAC), Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, South Africa, Egypt, Israel, Rest of Middle East and Africa (MEA) being part of the Middle East and Africa (MEA), and Argentina, Brazil and the rest of South America being part of South America.

Direct purchase this market research report now @ https://crediblemarkets.com/reports/purchase/cluster-headache-syndrome-drug-market-544093?license_type=single_user;utm_source=Komal&utm_medium=SatPR

Main points covered by the table of contents:

To present: Besides a detailed overview of the global cluster headache syndrome drugs market, this segment provides an overview of the report to give insight into the nature and substance of the review study.

Analysis of the strategies of the main players: Market players can use this analysis to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors in the Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs market.

Study on the main market trends: This part of the report offers a more meaningful assessment of recent and future examples of the market.

Market Forecast: Buyers of the report will tackle accurate and approved valuations of all market sizes in terms of value and volume. The report further gives the usage, creation, offerings, and different conjectures for the Cluster Headache Syndrome Drugs market.

Analysis of local growth: All critical regions and countries have been covered in the report. Neighborhood review will help uplift actors to exploit rejected common business areas, prepare express philosophies for target regions, and consider improving each regional market.

Segmental analysis: The report gives precise and solid conjectures on a piece of the pie for important parts of the Cluster Headache Syndrome Drug market. Market members can use this review to pinpoint key interests in key development pockets of the market.

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Key questions answered in the report:

  • What will be the pace of development of the Cluster Headache Syndrome Drug market?
  • What are the key factors driving the global cluster headache syndrome drugs market?
  • Who are the main manufacturers in the market?
  • What are the market openings, the market risks and the main lines of the market?
  • What are the sales, revenue, and price analysis of the major manufacturers of the Cluster Headache Syndrome Drug market?
  • Who are the distributors, traders and resellers of Cluster Headache Syndrome Drug market?
  • What are the opportunities and threats in the Cluster Headache Syndrome Drug market facing the vendors of the global Cluster Headache Syndrome Drug industries?
  • What is Offerings, Revenue, and Value Review by Types and Uses in the Market?
  • What is the Review of Transactions, Revenue and Value by Business Line?

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Nifty Auto Dips After Government Gives Major Boost To Semiconductor Manufacturers; TVS Motor, Eicher, Maruti, Hero, Bajaj Auto register strong sales https://topclusters.org/nifty-auto-dips-after-government-gives-major-boost-to-semiconductor-manufacturers-tvs-motor-eicher-maruti-hero-bajaj-auto-register-strong-sales/ Thu, 16 Dec 2021 05:42:00 +0000 https://topclusters.org/nifty-auto-dips-after-government-gives-major-boost-to-semiconductor-manufacturers-tvs-motor-eicher-maruti-hero-bajaj-auto-register-strong-sales/ Automakers were the center of attention on Thursday after the Union Cabinet approved a comprehensive program for developing a sustainable semiconductor and display ecosystem in the country. Nifty Auto was under pressure with heavyweight stocks digging deep. With the exception of M&M and Balkrishna, all stocks on the index were trading lower. At around 11:43 […]]]>


Automakers were the center of attention on Thursday after the Union Cabinet approved a comprehensive program for developing a sustainable semiconductor and display ecosystem in the country. Nifty Auto was under pressure with heavyweight stocks digging deep. With the exception of M&M and Balkrishna, all stocks on the index were trading lower.

At around 11:43 am, Nifty Auto was trading at 10,942.45, down 83.55 points or 0.8%. The index touched an intraday high and low of 11,094.75 and 10,916.75 respectively.

On the index, 2 scripts advanced while 13 scripts fell. M&M was the first winner with an increase of almost 1% while Balkrishna followed with a marginal rise in the level of equities.

TVS Motor was the best bear diving almost 5%, followed by Eicher Motor sliding over 2%. Maruti Suzuki and Hero MotoCorp plunged 1.7% each.

Bajaj Auto and Exide lost more than 1% each. Amara Raja Batteries and Bharat Forge lost 0.9% and 0.7%. Bosch and MRF plunged 0.6% each.

Tube Investments fell slightly, while Tata Motors and Ashok Leyland traded flat but in the red.

With the approval of the program for the development of the semiconductor and display manufacturing ecosystem in India with an expenditure of Rs76,000cr (> 10 billion USD), the Indian government announced incentives for each part of the supply chain, including electronic components, sub-assemblies and finished products.

According to the Cabinet, incentive support to the tune of Rs55,392cr (7.5 billion USD) has been approved under the PLI for large-scale electronics manufacturing, the PLI for computer hardware, the SPECS program and the program. of modified electronics manufacturing clusters (EMC 2.0). In addition, PLI incentives in the amount of Rs 98,000 (USD 13 billion) are approved for related sectors including ACC battery, automotive components, telecommunication and grid products, solar PV modules and white goods. .

Overall, the government has pledged to provide support of Rs 2,300,000 (USD 30 billion) to position India as a global electronics manufacturing hub with semiconductors as its core. based.


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Covid-19 Delta outbreak: Restaurants and bars desperately need staff on the eve of reopening day https://topclusters.org/covid-19-delta-outbreak-restaurants-and-bars-desperately-need-staff-on-the-eve-of-reopening-day/ Thu, 02 Dec 2021 02:03:19 +0000 https://topclusters.org/covid-19-delta-outbreak-restaurants-and-bars-desperately-need-staff-on-the-eve-of-reopening-day/ Auckland businessman Leo Molloy. Photo / Michael Craig The hospitality industry is preparing to reopen from Friday under the new traffic light system, with some anticipating a busy weekend. But restaurant owners are also calling on the government to ease border restrictions as they struggle “desperately” to find skilled workers for their businesses. Leo Molloy, […]]]>


Auckland businessman Leo Molloy. Photo / Michael Craig

The hospitality industry is preparing to reopen from Friday under the new traffic light system, with some anticipating a busy weekend.

But restaurant owners are also calling on the government to ease border restrictions as they struggle “desperately” to find skilled workers for their businesses.

Leo Molloy, owner of the Auckland Viaduct Basin Headquarters, said he was preparing to reopen his bar and grill from midnight tonight to fully vaccinated customers.

He said he expected a busy weekend for his 750-seat restaurant, which will only seat around 300 people to ensure it complies with the new traffic light system rules.

Molloy said that since the first lockdown on March 25 last year, there has not been a single outbreak of a Covid-19 cluster started in a hospitality place, unlike many churches.

“We should never be in a red light situation tomorrow, we should be in amber or green,” he argues.

“The hotel sector has fallen into oblivion, [the Government] whipped the dead horse past being a dead horse, it’s just a carcass now.

“It’s weird that we were treated this way, we were treated like children,” Molloy said.

He said his security would work with police and an alcohol control team to ensure the traffic light system is not violated during the busy reopening.

“We are also desperately short of staff, normally we have 80 but now we only have 61,” he said.

Marisa Bidois, general manager of the Association des restaurateurs.  Photo / Supplied
Marisa Bidois, general manager of the Association des restaurateurs. Photo / Supplied

The Restaurant Association’s chief executive, Marisa Bidois, said 60% of its members said their businesses currently do not have a full workforce.

“On average, they are just over 20% understaffed. Ninety-two percent of members who recruit for leadership positions said they find it difficult.

“Our industry depended on a foreign workforce that is no longer available to us.

“These roles range from waiter roles often occupied by working holiday visas and students to skilled roles such as chefs, butlers and restaurant managers.

“The hotel industry has experienced sustained growth so far. But for some time now, we’ve been desperately short of the skilled workforce we need to support our growth. “

The Restaurant Association’s future roadmap, released in October, identified a need to invest in hospitality apprenticeships and further training tailored to the goal while refining its immigration policy needs, said Bidois.

Moving averages per capita of daily cases for Auckland, Melbourne and Sydney, showing how Auckland has avoided the growth of other cities' cases.  Source / Ministry of Health
Moving averages per capita of daily cases for Auckland, Melbourne and Sydney, showing how Auckland has avoided the growth in cases of other cities. Source / Ministry of Health

While the hospitality industry is among the hardest hit by Covid lockdowns, the situation could be worse – analysis shows that a hard and early move in response to the Delta outbreak in mid-August has been essential to minimize the large-scale epidemic in the country.

The decision to quickly impose a Level 4 lockdown on Auckland failed to shut down Delta, but it did help the city avoid the fate of Melbourne and Sydney where epidemics grew exponentially and killed hundreds. people, wrote Derek Cheng, senior reporter for the Herald, in an analytical article. Morning.

“The ongoing lockdown in Auckland, which has now passed 100 days, has saved vaccine coverage enough time to curb the growth in the number of daily cases – although this will likely rise again once the lockdown is lifted. from Friday, ”he noted.

Unhealthy unemployment

Faruk Balli, professor of economics and finance at Massey University, said that although the unemployment rate is the lowest on record in the past 15 years, this low number is not healthy in the long run.

Professor at Massey University in economics and finance Faruk Balli.  Photo / Supplied
Professor at Massey University in economics and finance Faruk Balli. Photo / Supplied

Due to border closures and labor shortages in many industries, including hospitality, employers are forced to hire staff who are not suitable for the job, he said.

“And they pay more for the mismatch, which will decrease the productivity of the company,” he said.

Balli agreed for restaurateurs that to alleviate the problem, the government needed to relax immigration policy.


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