Study: Diet Adherence Linked to Lower Gut Inflammation

Researchers in Canada have shown that following a dietary program similar to the Mediterranean diet is associated with better microbiome composition and lower intestinal inflammation.

Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that causes tissues in the digestive tract to swell and often leads to abdominal pain and malnutrition. Although its causes are unknown, previous studies suggest that diet is an important risk factor for Crohn’s disease.

This study suggests that an intervention aimed at preventing the onset of the disease should take into account the basic microbiome, as well as a certain diet, which can only be beneficial depending on the presence of a certain profile. of microbiome.– Williams Turpin, Researcher, Mount Sinai Hospital Toronto

Other studies have shown that patients with Crohn’s disease also have different microbial compositions than healthy people, leading researchers to hypothesize that the two are related.

To test the hypothesis, the researchers collected stool samples from 2,289 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with Crohn’s disease and had them complete validated food frequency questionnaires asking about their diet during the course of the study. of the previous year.

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The researchers identified three groups of food and microbial composition based on their analysis. One of the groups resembled the Mediterranean diet, one resembled a Western diet, and the last food group was a hybrid.

The researchers found that people on a MedDiet-like diet generally had a microbial makeup with an abundance of fiber-degrading bacteria – Ruminococcus and Faecalibacterium – and significantly lower levels of gut inflammation.

This is likely due to the increased amount of fiber associated with higher consumption of leafy greens, grains, and other fiber-rich foods. [in the MedDiet]said Williams Turpin, a researcher at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto and lead author of the study. Olive Oil Times.

In this environment, microbes capable of degrading fiber (which is not digested by the host) have an ecological advantage, which may promote their abundance in humans consuming higher fiber foods,” he added. .

There was no evidence to suggest that eating a single food directly led to a more diverse microbiome. However, says Turpin, olive oil showed a trend of increased microbiome diversity,” but a weak association with lower inflammation in the expected direction.

Despite the opacity between the links between single foods and gut microbiome diversity and subclinical inflammation, the links to long-term dietary patterns are more evident.

Our study demonstrated that the lower level of subclinical inflammation could be related to both diet and the associated microbiome,” Turpin said. This conclusion is supported by a causal inference analysis demonstrating that 47% of the anti-inflammatory properties of the Mediterranean-type diet were mediated by the microbiome.

This also means that a Mediterranean-type diet has a direct effect on subclinical inflammation (53%),” he added. We believe that a fiber-degrading microbiome can produce beneficial short-chain fatty acids known for their anti-inflammatory properties in vivo.

Turpin said the study results could help guide future dietary strategies that affect microbial composition and host gut inflammation to prevent disease.

This study suggests that an intervention aimed at preventing the onset of the disease should take into account the basic microbiome, as well as a certain diet, which can only be beneficial depending on the presence of a certain profile. microbiome,” he said.

This is especially true as this study identified that certain bacteria contribute to the anti-inflammatory potential of a Mediterranean diet,” Turpin added.

The results of this study complement those of a 2020 study which found that patients with Crohn’s disease who followed a Mediterranean diet, including olive oil, for six months saw their condition improve. .

Instead of focusing on gut microbiomes, the researchers looked at the relationship between weight and disease. Obese patients with Crohn’s disease following the Mediterranean diet saw their body mass index drop at the same time as the onset of their symptoms.


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